Who is Most at Risk for Testicular Cancer?

Who is Most at Risk for Testicular Cancer?

Written by: Dr. Joshua Gonzalez

That last thing we want to associate with our cojones is the big c word. No, it’s not a four-letter word, it’s *whispers* cancer. While it may not be everyone’s, perhaps anyone’s, favorite subject, the more we know about the risks of testicular cancer, the better. Popstar is here with the tips and (not just the tip) on testicular cancer. So who is at risk? Let’s get pop-started!

Age and Testicular Cancer

Let’s start at the beginning of the alphabet. A is for age. Like many ailments, age plays a role in testicular cancer. Testicular cancer typically affects young to middle-aged men, most commonly between the ages of 15 and 35. However, testicular does not discriminate and can occur at any stage in life, all the way from infancy to old age.


During the transition from boyz II men, we all wait for that miraculous moment for our “balls to drop.” In the metaphorical sense, of course. But what about in the literal sense. Cryptorchidism is a condition where one or both testicles fail to descend into the scrotum before birth. Of course, we know this condition has nothing to do with your pubertal voice change, but those with cryptorchidism are at higher risk of developing testicular cancer compared to their descended testicles counterparts.

Family History: Is It in Your Genes?

They don’t say it “runs in the family” for nothing. People with a family history of testicular cancer are at a higher risk for developing the disease, especially if it is an immediate family member like a father or brother. There are also other hereditary factors that may predispose certain families to testicular cancer.

Race and Ethnicity

While testicular cancer is relatively rare in people of Asian or African descent, Caucasians have the highest incidence rates globally. However, there is limited research regarding the relationship between race and testicular cancer.

Personal History

Testicular cancer can be a bit of a boomerang. Like any form of cancer, you always run the risk of it returning during remission. Men who have previously been diagnosed and treated for testicular cancer are more at risk for developing cancer in their remaining testicle. Since recovery isn’t always linear, it is important for those who have dealt with testicular cancer to continue to get regular check ups.

HIV Infection: Understanding the Risk

Men living with HIV or AIDS have a higher incidence of testicular cancer compared to the general population. While the exact correlation between HIV and testicular cancer is not fully understood, there is speculation that it may have something to do with the immunodeficiency associated with HIV.

Klinefelter Syndrom

Klinefelter is a genetic condition categorized by the presence of an extra X chromosome in males. People born with this genetic disorder have a higher rate of cryptorchidism, as well as other testicular abnormalities, thus elevating their risk of developing testicular cancer.

Environmental Factors

We now know that testicular cancer can be hereditary, but there are also environmental factors that come into play as well that can increase your risk. Though the research is limited, prolonged exposure to certain toxins such as chemicals, pesticides, as well as endocrine-disrupting compounds may increase the risk of testicular cancer.

Who is Most at Risk for Testicular Cancer?


So how can we stop testicular cancer in its tracks? Other than routine checkups with your primary care physician, the real answer is knowing your body. Performing regular testicular self-exam tests, in between doctor’s visits, are helpful at detecting cancer early and kicking it to the curb. The more you check, the more you will notice potential lumps or abnormalities.

We recommend catching up with your cojones once a month, especially if you fall into one of the high risk groups. To learn how to give yourself a testicle self-exam, check out our step-by-step guide here. If you find anything out of the ordinary, seek medical attention ASAP so you can keep you and your family jewels feeling just right.

Dr. Joshua Gonzalez

Dr. Joshua Gonzalez

Dr. Joshua Gonzalez is a board-certified urologist who is fellowship-trained in Sexual Medicine and specializes in the management of male and female sexual dysfunctions. He completed his medical education at Columbia University and his urological residency at the Mount Sinai Medical Center. Throughout his career, Dr. Gonzalez has focused on advocating for sexual health and providing improved healthcare to the LGBTQ+ community.